There is no reasoning no process of inference or comparison there is no thinking about things no putting two and two together there are no ideas – the animal does not think of the box or of the food or of the act he is to perform.
The real difference between a man’s scientific judgments about himself and the judgment of others about him is he has added sources of knowledge.
Human beings are accustomed to think of intellect as the power of having and controlling ideas and of ability to learn as synonymous with ability to have ideas. But learning by having ideas is really one of the rare and isolated events in nature.
Psychology is the science of the intellects characters and behavior of animals including man.
Human education is concerned with certain changes in the intellects characters and behavior of men its problems being roughly included under these four topics: Aims materials means and methods.
Just as the science and art of agriculture depend upon chemistry and botany so the art of education depends upon physiology and psychology.
From the lowest animals of which we can affirm intelligence up to man this type of intellect is found.
Human folk are as a matter of fact eager to find intelligence in animals.